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Incredible Knowledge: Surgery of the prehistoric stone age

It turns out that surgery was known not only to ancient developed civilizations, but even to Neanderthals.

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The Stone Age is a period in human history that dates back to the Paleolithic era, which began over 2 million years ago and ended around 3,300 BC. It is divided into three distinct periods: the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic. During this time period, humans relied on stone tools and weapons for survival and were largely hunter-gatherers.

For a long time, scientists believed that our most ancient ancestors were too primitive and cruel, but recent discoveries have shown otherwise. It is hard to believe that primitive people could provide medical care, and surgical operations were out of the question.

A real sensation in the archaeological world was the discovery made during 1953 and 1960 in Northern Ira, during which nine male remains were found. Presumably they lived on earth 30-60 thousand years BC.

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The find at first seemed unremarkable, but upon closer examination, one skeleton attracted the attention of scientists. Skeleton was without his right hand, which ancestor lost during his lifetime.

But interesting is the fact that the hand was clearly amputated, as indicated by many characteristic traces. Also traces of medicinal herbs that they used for treatment were found. The incredible fact simply amazed scientists.

A more significant find with traces of the oldest surgery in the world was made in the vicinity of a small French village at the end of the 20th century.

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In the numerous graves of people of the Stone Age, one very curious skeleton of a man was found, about 50 years old with two neat round marks from obvious surgical intervention.

Moreover, both holes were made at different times. Scientists claim that the man was trepanned twice, and he successfully endured both, and traces of bone tissue regeneration are clearly visible.

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It is believed that prehistoric humans may have employed trepanation, which is the process of drilling a hole in the skull to relieve pressure on the brain.

This procedure was used to treat head injuries and conditions such as hydrocephalus.

How is this possible? Where do such technologies come from, and even more so their long-term practice? Or maybe it was done by someone more advanced than the representatives of the Stone Age?

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Jake Carter

Jake Carter is a researcher and a prolific writer who has been fascinated by science and the unexplained since childhood. He is always eager to share his findings and insights with the readers of, a website he created in 2013.